Across Iceland - monikachacephotography
Lupines forever!

Lupines forever!

This was a tiny bunch of lupines just off of the parking area at Aldeyjarfoss. The nootka lupine was introduced to Iceland in 1945 to control soil erosion and add nitrogen to the soil. It has naturalized to such an extent that it is now considered an invasive species. There are acres and acres of it. While it's very colorful, it creates a canopy over the native shrubs, lichens & mosses, and decreases diversity. In some ares, it seems to decline after 15-20 years and the native plants can grow in the enriched soil.

lupinesicelandpurpleflowerswildflowersAlaskanAldeyjarfoss